Sunday, January 12, 2020

Earth and Its People Edition 3 Chapter 7 Outline

The Impact of the Silk Road †¢ The Silk Road at first caused many pastoral groups to form. Eventually, rich families did settleand build large establishments. †¢ The Silk Road allowed the spread of religions ( see chart above ) such as Nestorian Christianity,Manichaeism, Zoroastrianism, and Buddhism. †¢ The stirrup spread though out the Silk Road. It allowed riders to be much more stable and thuscaused military innovation. i. e. the superiority of the Tang calvary in China. The Indian Ocean Maritime System †¢The Indian Ocean Maritime System was a society of seafarers established across the IndianOcean and South China Sea. †¢ This trade system linked a network of sea trade routes from Africa to China. The main playerswere Africans, South Arabian Persian, and the  Southern Chinese people (including theIndonesians and Malays). †¢ Although much of the discoveries of new lands and waters were attributed to famous peoplesuch as Zhang Jian or Hippalus, we mus t not forget the the indigenous people of these areasalso greatly contributed to their  expansions. Origins of Contact and Trade †¢Madagascar is the world’s fourth largest island. †¢ 2000 years ago, people from one of the many Indonesian islands of Southeast Asia establishedthemselves in the mountainous land of Madagascar, 9,500 kilometers from home. †¢ These people kept much of their traditions but eventually lost most of it. [pic] The Impact of Indian Ocean Trade †¢ The precious materials wanted in  trade included ivory and minerals. †¢ Evidence of ancient copper mines has been  found in Oman in  southeastern Arabia. †¢ However, this volume of trade was  less than the amount occurring in the Mediterranean. †¢In the Indian area, the ports were small due to geographical problems such as inland monsoonwater not by the sea. †¢ E India, the Malay Peninsula, and Indonesia afforded more hospitable and densely populatedshores with e asier access to inland  populations. †¢ The empires that existed through out this Indus area never bothered to develop  as muchmaritime powers as the Greeks or  the Phoenocians did. †¢ The families around the coastal Indian area established bilingual and bicultural systems. Routes Across the Sahara Early Saharan Cultures †¢ The Sahara is broken only by the Nile River. †¢The trans-Saharan Caravan Routes were forced into existence due to the lack of water in manyareas. †¢ Before the Sahara became dry (pre 2500 B. C. E. ), this area was quite wet with a diverse group of  animals. †¢ Many believe that people from Mediterranean civilizations such as the Minoans, Mycenaeans, orRomans may have rode chariots into  the Saharan deserts. However, this evidence is lacking. [pic] Trade Across the Sahara †¢ Traders developed into two groups: the north and south. †¢ The North primarily focused on salt  trade. †¢ People from the souther Sahel brought forest and  agriculture goods.Sub-Saharan Africa A challenging Geography †¢ The use of rivers was limited by the many rapids in the rivers. †¢ The Southern Sahara area was limited and surrounded by many obstacles such as  the Niger,Zaire, Senegal Rivers, the Red  Sea, the Saharan Desert, etc. †¢ South of the Sahara are the steppes and savanna rain forests. These places were difficult totraverse. The Development of Cultural Unity †¢ â€Å"Anthropologists call â€Å"Great Traditions† those that typically include a written language, commonlegal and belief systems, ethical codes, and other intellectual attitudes.They loom large inwritten records as traditions that rise above the diversity of local  customs and beliefs commonlydistinguished as â€Å"small traditions. †Ã¢â‚¬  †¢ The elite culture in the sub-Saharan area turned the area into a Great Tradition area. †¢ This area is home to ~ 2000 languages. African Cultural Char acteristics †¢ African culture is shaped by the geographically different conditions of the lands. †¢ The post ice age time caused the diverse group of people to form. †¢ Although the population flourished at first, the  increase in dryness over the long period of  timecaused the diverse groups of people to  recede into specific areas.The Advent of Iron and the Bantu Migrations †¢ Agriculture started in the 2nd millennium B. C. E. and spread southward from the area by theSahara. †¢ Archaeology has also uncovered traces of copper mining in  the Sahara from the early  firstmillennium B. C. E. †¢ Copper smelting was during 400 C. E. †¢ Iron smelting was around the 1st millennium C. E. †¢ The Africans of Bantu probably figured out  how to smelt iron by themselves. The Spread of Ideas Ideas and Material Evidence †¢ In SE Asian, pig domestication was extremely important. †¢ Coinage in Anatolia and Europe was extremely popular. A t the same time coinage in China was also very popular. The Spread of Buddhism †¢ Please See The Above Image and Your Religious Charts The Spread of Christianity †¢ Please see Religious Chart ______________________________________________________ CHAPTER OUTLINE I. The Silk Road | | | |A. Origins and Operations | | 1. The Silk Road was an overland route that linked China to the Mediterranean world via Mesopotamia, Iran, and Central Asia. There were two periods of heavy use of the Silk Road: (1) 150 b. c. e. –907 c. e. and (2) the thirteenth through seventeenth centuries c. e. 2. The origins of the Silk Road trade may be located in the occasional trading of Central Asian nomads.Regular, large-scale trade was fostered by the Chinese demand for western products (particularly horses) and by the Parthian state in northeastern Iran and its control of the markets in Mesopotamia. 3. In addition to horses, China imported alfalfa, grapes, and a variety of other new crops a s well as medicinal products, metals, and precious stones. China exported peaches and apricots, spices, and manufactured goods including silk, pottery, and paper. | |B. The Impact of the Silk Road 1. Turkic nomads, who became the dominant pastoralist group in Central Asia, benefited from the trade. Their elites constructed houses, lived settled lives, and became interested in foreign religions including Christianity, Manicheanism, Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, and (eventually) Islam. 2. Central Asian military technologies, particularly the stirrup, were exported both east and west, with significant consequences for the conduct of war. | | II.The Sasanid Empire, 224-600 CE A. Politics and Society 1. The Sasanid kingdom was established in 224 and controlled the areas of Iran and Mesopotamia. 2. The Sasanid Empire made Zoroastrianism its official religion. The Byzantine Empire made Christianity its official religion. Both Zoroastrianism and Christianity were intolerant of other religions. 3. In the third century Mani of Mesopotamia founded a religion whose beliefs centered around the struggle between Good and Evil. Mani was killed by the Sasanid shah, but Manichaeism spread widely in Central Asia.Arabs had some awareness of these religions conflicts and knew about Christianity. III. The Indian Ocean Maritime System | | | | A. Origins of Contact and Trade | | 1.There is evidence of early trade between ancient Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley. This trade appears to have broken off as Mesopotamia turned more toward trade with East Africa. 2. Two thousand years ago, Malay sailors from Southeast Asia migrated to the islands of Madagascar. These migrants, however, did not retain communications or trade with their homeland. | | B. The Impact of Indian Ocean Trade 1. What little we know about trade in the Indian Ocean system before Islam is gleaned largely from a single first century c. . Greco-Egyptian text,  The Periplus of the Erythrean Sea. This account describes a trading system that must have been well established and flourishing when the account was written. The goods traded included a wide variety of spices, aromatic resins, pearls, Chinese pottery, and other luxury goods. The volume of trade was probably not as high as in the Mediterranean. 2. The culture of the Indian Ocean ports was often isolated from that of their hinterlands. In the western part of the Indian Ocean, trading ports did not have access to large inland populations of potential consumers.Even in those eastern Indian and Malay peninsula ports that did have access to large inland populations, the civilizations did not become oriented toward the sea. 3. Traders and sailors in the Indian Ocean system often married local women in the ports that they frequented. These women thus became mediators between cultures. | | IV. Routes Across the Sahara | |A. Early Saharan Cultures | | 1. Undateable rock paintings in the highland areas that separate the southern from the northern Sa hara indicate the existence of an early Saharan hunting culture that was later joined by cattle breeders who are portrayed as looking rather like contemporary West Africans. 2. The artwork indicates that the cattle breeders were later succeeded by horse herders who drove chariots.There is no evidence to support the earlier theory that these charioteers might have been Minoan or Mycenaean refugees. But there is also no evidence to show us either their origins or their fate. 3. The highland rock art indicates that camel riders followed the charioteers. The camel was introduced from Arabia and its introduction and domestication in the Sahara was probably related to the development of the trans-Saharan trade. Written evidence and the design of camel saddles and patterns of camel use indicate a south-to-north diffusion of camel riding. . The camel made it possible for people from the southern highlands of the Sahara to roam the desert and to establish contacts with the people of the nort hern Sahara. | | B. Trade Across the Sahara 1. Trade across the Sahara developed slowly when two local trading systems, one in the southern Sahara and one in the north, were linked. Traders in the southern Sahara had access to desert salt deposits and exported salt to the sub-Saharan regions in return for kola nuts and palm oil.Traders in the north exported agricultural products and wild animals to Italy. | | V. Sub-Saharan Africa | | A. A Challenging Geography | | 1. Sub-Saharan Africa is a large area with many different environmental zones and many geographical obstacles to movement. . Some of the significant geographical areas are the Sahel, the tropical savanna, the tropical rain forest of the lower Niger and Zaire, the savanna area south of the rain forest, steppe and desert below that, and the temperate highlands of South Africa. | | B. The Development of Cultural Unity 1. Scholars draw a distinction between the â€Å"great traditions† of ruling elite culture in a ci vilization and the many â€Å"small traditions† of the common people. . In sub-Saharan Africa no overarching â€Å"great tradition† developed. Sub-Saharan Africa is a vast territory of many â€Å"small traditions. † Historians know very little about the prehistory of these many â€Å"small traditions† and their peoples. 3. African cultures are highly diverse. The estimated two thousand spoken languages of the continent and the numerous different food production systems reflect the diversity of the African ecology and the difficulty of communication and trade between different groups.Another reason for the long dominance of â€Å"small traditions† is that no foreign power was able to conquer Africa and thus impose a unified â€Å"great tradition. † | | C. African Cultural Characteristics 1. Despite their diversity, African cultures display certain common features that attest to an underlying cultural unity that some scholars have called †Å"Africanity. † 2. One of these common cultural features is a concept of kingship in which kings are ritually isolated and oversee societies in which the people are arranged in age groups and kinship ivisions. 3. Other common features include cultivation with the hoe and digging stick, the use of rhythm in African music, and the functions of dancing and mask wearing in rituals. 4. One hypothesis offered to explain this cultural unity holds that the people of sub-Saharan Africa are descended from the people who occupied the southern Sahara during its â€Å"wet period† and migrated south the Sahel, where their cultural traditions developed. | | D. The Advent of Iron and the Bantu Migrations 1.Sub-Saharan agriculture had its origins north of the equator and then spread southward. Iron working also began north of the equator and spread southward, reaching southern Africa by 800 c. e. 2. Linguistic evidence suggests that the spread of iron and other technology in sub-Saharan Africa was the result of a phenomenon known as the Bantu migrations. 3. The original homeland of the Bantu people was in the area on the border of modern Nigeria and Cameroon. Evidence suggests that the Bantu people spread out toward the east and the south through a series of migrations over the period of the first millennium c. . By the eight century, Bantu-speaking people had reached East Africa. | | IV. The Spread of Ideas | | A. Ideas and Material Evidence | | 1. It is extremely difficult, sometimes impossible, to trace the dissemination of ideas in preliterate societies.For example, eating pork was restricted or prohibited by religious belief in Southeast Asia, in ancient Egypt, and in eastern Iran. Because Southeast Asia was an early center of pig domestication, scholars hypothesize that the pig and the religious injunctions concerning eating the pig traveled together toward the west. This has not been proved. 2. Another difficult problem involves the invention of coins. In the Mediterranean world, the coins were invented in Anatolia and spread from there to Europe, North Africa, and India.Chinese made cast copper coins—was this inspired by the Anatolian example? There is no way of knowing. | | B. The Spread of Buddhism 1. The spread of ideas in a deliberate and organized fashion such that we can trace it is a phenomenon of the first millennium c. e. This is particularly the case with the spread of Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam. 2. The spread of Buddhism was facilitated both by royal sponsorship and by the travels of ordinary pilgrims and missionaries.In India, the Mauryan king Ashoka and King Kanishka of the Kushans actively supported Buddhism. Two of the most well-known pilgrims who helped to transmit Buddhism to China were the Chinese monks Faxian and Xuanzang. Both have left reliable narrative accounts of their journeys. 3. Buddhist missionaries from India traveled to a variety of destinations: west to Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia, as well as to Sri Lanka, southeast Asia, and Tibet. 4. Buddhism was changed and further developed in the lands to which it spread.Theravada Buddhism became dominant in Sri Lanka, Mahayana in Tibet, and Chan (Zen) in East Asia. | | C. The Spread of Christianity 1. Armenia was an important entrepot for the Silk Road trade. Mediterranean states spread Christianity to Armenia in order to bring that kingdom over to its side and thus deprive Iran of control of this area. 2. The transmission of Christianity to Ethiopia was similarly linked to a Mediterranean Christian attempt to deprive Iran of trade.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Italian Verb Conjugations Dipingere

In Italian, dipingere means  to paint (the portrait of), depict; to decorate. Irregular second-conjugation Italian verbTransitive verb (takes a  direct object) INDICATIVE/INDICATIVO Presente io dipingo tu dipingi lui, lei, Lei dipinge noi dipingiamo voi dipingete loro, Loro dipingono Imperfetto io dipingevo tu dipingevi lui, lei, Lei dipingeva noi dipingevamo voi dipingevate loro, Loro dipingevano Passato Remoto io dipinsi tu dipingesti lui, lei, Lei dipinse noi dipingemmo voi dipingeste loro, Loro dipinsero Futuro Semplice io dipinger tu dipingerai lui, lei, Lei dipinger noi dipingeremo voi dipingerete loro, Loro dipingeranno Passato Prossimo io ho dipinto tu hai dipinto lui, lei, Lei ha dipinto noi abbiamo dipinto voi avete dipinto loro, Loro hanno dipinto Trapassato Prossimo io avevo dipinto tu avevi dipinto lui, lei, Lei aveva dipinto noi avevamo dipinto voi avevate dipinto loro, Loro avevano dipinto Trapassato Remoto io ebbi dipinto tu avesti dipinto lui, lei, Lei ebbe dipinto noi avemmo dipinto voi aveste dipinto loro, Loro ebbero dipinto Future Anteriore io avr dipinto tu avrai dipinto lui, lei, Lei avr dipinto noi avremo dipinto voi avrete dipinto loro, Loro avranno dipinto SUBJUNCTIVE/CONGIUNTIVO Presente io dipinga tu dipinga lui, lei, Lei dipinga noi dipingiamo voi dipingiate loro, Loro dipingano Imperfetto io dipingessi tu dipingessi lui, lei, Lei dipingesse noi dipingessimo voi dipingeste loro, Loro dipingessero Passato io abbia dipinto tu abbia dipinto lui, lei, Lei abbia dipinto noi abbiamo dipinto voi abbiate dipinto loro, Loro abbiano dipinto Trapassato io avessi dipinto tu avessi dipinto lui, lei, Lei avesse dipinto noi avessimo dipinto voi aveste dipinto loro, Loro avessero dipinto CONDITIONAL/CONDIZIONALE Presente io dipingerei tu dipingeresti lui, lei, Lei dipingerebbe noi dipingeremmo voi dipingereste loro, Loro dipingerebbero Passato io avrei dipinto tu avresti dipinto lui, lei, Lei avrebbe dipinto noi avremmo dipinto voi avreste dipinto loro, Loro avrebbero dipinto IMPERATIVE/IMPERATIVO Presente — dipingi, dipinga, dipingiamo, dipingete, dipingano INFINITIVE/INFINITO Presente ​— dipingere Passato — avere dipinto PARTICIPLE/PARTICIPIO Presente — dipingente ​ Passato  Ã¢â‚¬â€ dipinto GERUND/GERUNDIO Presente ​— dipingendo Passato — avendo dipinto

Friday, December 27, 2019

New Years Greetings in German, Region by Region

When you want to say Happy New Year to someone in German, you will most often use the phrase  Frohes neues Jahr.  Yet, when youre in different regions of Germany or other German-speaking countries, you may hear different ways to wish someone well in the new year.   Augsburg University in Bavaria conducted a study to find out which New Years greetings dominated certain regions in Germany. The results are quite interesting, with some areas of Germany sticking with tradition, while others offer variations of the greeting. "Frohes Neues Jahr" The German expression,  Frohes neues Jahr  literally translates to Happy New Year. It is widely used in German-speaking countries, particularly in the northern and western states of Germany. This phrase is most common in northern Hesse (the home of Frankfurt), Lower Saxony (including the cities of Hanover and Bremen),  Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (the coastal state along the Baltic Sea), and  Schleswig-Holstein (the state that borders Denmark). As often happens, some Germans prefer a shorter version and will simply use  Frohes neues. This is especially true in many areas of Hesse and in the wine country of Mittelrhein. "Prosit Neujahr" It is becoming increasingly more common for many German speakers to use  Prosit Neujahr  instead of the traditional Happy New Year. In German,  prosit  means cheers and  neujahr  is a compound word for new year. This phrase is scattered regionally and is often used in the area around the northern city of Hamburg and northwestern Lower Saxony. You will also likely hear it in many parts of western Germany, particularly around the city of Mannheim. There is also a smattering of its usage in the southeastern region of Germany in the state of Bayern. This may be due, in part, to an influence from eastern Austria and Vienna, where  Prosit Neujahr  is also a popular greeting. "Gesundes Neues Jahr" The German phrase  Gesundes  neues  Jahr  translates to Healthy New Year. You will hear this greeting most often when traveling through eastern regions of Germany, including the cities of Dresden and Nuremberg as well as the Franconia region in the south-central part of Germany. It may also be shortened to  Gesundes neues. "Gutes Neues Jahr" Meaning Good New Year, the German phrase  Gutes neues Jahr  is also popular. This version is most often used in the country of Austria. In Switzerland and the German state of  Baden-Wà ¼rttemberg in the southwest corner of the country, you may hear this phrase shortened to Gutes neues. Its also possible that youll hear this saying in the state of Bavaria, which includes Munich and Nuremberg. Yet, its most often concentrated to the south, closer to the Austrian border. Standard New Year's Greeting If you are unsure of which greeting to use or find yourself in an area of Germany not described previously, you can use a few standard New Years greetings that are widely accepted. They are: Alles Gute  zum  neuen  Jahr! Best wishes for the new year!Einen  guten  Rutsch ins  neue  Jahr! A good start in the new year!Ein glà ¼ckliches  neues  Jahr! Happy New Year!Glà ¼ck und Erfolg  im  neuen  Jahr! Good fortune and success in the new year!Zum neuen Jahr Gesundheit, Glà ¼ck und viel Erfolg! Health, happiness, and much success in the new year! Use one of these phrases, and you cant go wrong, regardless of where you find yourself throughout Germany or German-speaking counties.

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Hbr When Your Core Business Is Dying - 74686 Words

TOP-TEAM POLITICS†¦page 90 WHEN YOUR CORE BUSINESS IS DYING†¦page 66 Y GE SE PA IN DS CK R M WA A 53 www.hbr.org April 2007 58 What Your Leader Expects of You Larry Bossidy 66 Finding Your Next Core Business Chris Zook 78 Promise-Based Management: The Essence of Execution Donald N. Sull and Charles Spinosa 90 The Leadership Team: Complementary Strengths or Conï ¬â€šicting Agendas? Stephen A. Miles and Michael D. Watkins 100 Avoiding Integrity Land Mines Ben W. Heineman, Jr. 20 33 FORETHOUGHT HBR CASE STUDY Why Didn t We Know? Ralph Hasson 45 FIRST PERSON Preparing for the Perfect Product Launch THOU SHALT †¦page 58 James P. Hackett 111 TOOL KIT The Process Audit†¦show more content†¦100 100 Avoiding Integrity Land Mines Ben W. Heineman, Jr. How do you keep thousands of employees, operating in hundreds of countries, as honest as they are competitive? General Electric’s longtime general counsel describes the systems the company has put in place to do just that. 78 90 4 Harvard Business Review | April 2007 | hbr.org Cover Art: Joshua Gorchov continued on page 8 APRIL 2007 14 Departments 12 COMPANY INDEX 14 FROM THE EDITOR 53 2006 MCKINSEY AWARDS AND 2007 MCKINSEY JUDGES 20 What the Boss Wants from You What should CEOs and their direct reports expect from each other? When Larry Bossidy laid out his views to a group of young executives, they couldn’t take notes fast enough. You don’t have to write down what he said, though, because Larry has done it for you here. And it will be on the exam. 88 STRATEGIC HUMOR 111 TOOL KIT The Process Audit Michael Hammer Redesigning business processes can generate dramatic improvements in performance, but the effort is notoriously difï ¬ cult. Many executives have ï ¬â€šoundered, uncertain about what exactly needs to be changed, by how much, and when. A new framework can take the mystery out of reengineering business processes and help you comprehend, plan, and assess your company’s process-based transformations. 20 FORETHOUGHT Firms from developing countries are making a global mark†¦McDonald’s isn’t afraid to bite off more than it can chew†¦Women at FortuneShow MoreRelatedDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words   |  1617 PagesIndicator 52 Locus of Control Scale 52 Tolerance of Ambiguity Scale 54 Core Self-Evaluation Scale (CSES) 56 SKILL LEARNING 57 Key Dimensions of Self-Awareness 57 The Enigma of Self-Awareness 58 The Sensitive Line 58 Understanding and Appreciating Individual Differences Important Areas of Self-Awareness 61 Emotional Intelligence 62 Values 65 Ethical Decision Making and Values 72 Cognitive Style 74 Attitudes Toward Change 76 Core Self-Evaluation 79 SKILL ANALYSIS 84 Cases Involving Self-Awareness 84Read MoreManagement Course: Mba−10 General Management215330 Words   |  862 PagesManagement Course: MBA−10 General Management California College for Health Sciences MBA Program McGraw-Hill/Irwin abc McGraw−Hill Primis ISBN: 0−390−58539−4 Text: Effective Behavior in Organizations, Seventh Edition Cohen Harvard Business Review Finance Articles The Power of Management Capital Feigenbaum−Feigenbaum International Management, Sixth Edition Hodgetts−Luthans−Doh Contemporary Management, Fourth Edition Jones−George Driving Shareholder Value Morin−Jarrell LeadershipRead MoreManaging Information Technology (7th Edition)239873 Words   |  960 PagesTechnology Platform CASE STUDY I-7 Midsouth Chamber of Commerce (B): Cleaning Up an Information Systems Debacle CASE STUDY II-1 Vendor-Managed Inventory at NIBCO CASE STUDY II-2 Real-Time Business Intelligence at Continental Airlines CASE STUDY II-3 Norfolk Southern Railway: The Business Intelligence Journey CASE STUDY II-4 Mining Data to Increase State Tax Revenues in California CASE STUDY II-5 The Cliptomaniaâ„ ¢ Web Store: An E-Tailing Start-up Survival Story CASE STUDY

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Psychological Effect of Broken Family to the Behavior free essay sample

The course will introduce the students to the five divisions of Biopsychology, namely: Physiological Psychology, Psychophysiology, Neuropsychology, Comparative Psychology, and Psychopharmacology; and the different research methodologies used in each field of study. Biological Psychology-laboratory (LBYPSYB) 2 units Prerequisite : Zoology 1-lecture, Zoology 1-laboratory Prerequisite to : Sensation and Perception A combination of lectures, film-showing, group-discussions and laboratory exercises will be used as teaching methods: Six hours per week of laboratory work will be conducted in the Psychology Laboratory where students will perform human brain dissection and animal and human experiments that illustrate the basic principles of Biopsychology. Developmental Psychology (DEVPSYC) 3 units Prerequisite : Introduction to Psychology The course involves a critical study of the concepts and theories of development; and the analysis of emotional, mental, physical and social development from birth to old age. The course will utilize the lifespan approach giving equal emphasis to early and adolescent development, and adult and aging development. Lectures and exercises will provide foundations for a better understanding of developmental needs and tasks at each stage in life, the differential effects of psychological and environmental factors in development, and psychological needs in coping with life transitions. Experimental Psychology- lecture (EXPSYCH) 3 units Prerequisite : Psychological Statistics 2 Prerequisite to : Sensation and Perception, Psychological Measurement 2 This lecture course designed to introduce the students to the experimental approach to research in psychology. Lectures and discussions on the principles, concepts, and procedures used in experimentation in psychology will be conducted. Both the historical development of the experimental tradition and the current experimental methodology practices will be examined. Because experimentation has been extensively utilized in cognitive and social psychology, emphases will be placed on classical and recent experiments in these fields. The contribution of these experiments to the development of cognitive and social theories will be discussed. Experimental Psychology- laboratory (LBYPSMX) 2 units Prerequisite : Psychological Statistics 2 Prerequisite to : Sensation and Perception, Psychological Measurement 2 This laboratory course is designed to supplement learning in the lecture. It allows the students to apply the principles, concepts, and procedures of experimentation in a series of hands-on exercises corresponding to the various stages of experimentation. The student will be guided in the design, implementation, analysis and write up of experiments in cognitive and social psychology. Psychology of Sensation and Perception (SENSPER) units Prerequisite : Experimental Psychology, Biological Psychology This course will familiarize the students with the psychological principles and processes involved in human sensation and perception, and a basic understanding of the mechanisms that make these possible. Lectures and exercises will include the anatomy and physiology of the different mechanisms of human sensation, the princip les and processes involved in human perception such as integrating and recognizing complex patterns of sensations, and the behavioral manifestations of disturbances in these mechanisms and processes. The course will include hands-on computer-simulated and laboratory exercises that illustrate the principles of human sensation and perception that will be conducted in Psychology Laboratory. Psychology of Language and Learning (LEARPSY) 3 units Prerequisite : Introduction to Psychology This course aims to provide the student with a basic understanding of theories and principles in language, learning and memory, and the mechanisms that make these possible. The students will be exposed to classical animal and human studies and the different research methodologies utilized to formulate and validate concepts and theories in language, learning and memory. Discussions include the nature, causes, behavioral manifestations and possible interventions in language, learning and memory disorders. Hands-on and computer-simulated exercises that illustrate the basic principles will be conducted in Psychology Laboratory. Psychological Measurement 1 (PSYCME1/LBYPSY1) 3 units Prerequisite : Theories of Personality Prerequisite to : Psychological Measurement 2 This course includes 2 units of lecture and 1 unit of laboratory work. This course aims to introduce the students on the history of psychological measurement; psychophysical and scaling methods; basic concepts and principles in testing such as reliability, validity and norming; selection, administration, scoring and interpretation of selected psychological test; as well as issues and ethical considerations in psychological testing in the Philippine context and applied in the clinical setting. The students will be trained on writing up of profile reports based on psychological test battery results. Psychological Measurement 2 (PSYCME2/LBYPSY2) 3 units Prerequisite : Psychological Measurement 1, Experimental Psychology This course will introduce the students to the procedures and instruments used in clinical assessment. The students will be introduced to the peculiarities of the assessment process in special population as preschool children, brain-damaged populations, psychotic patients, mentally and/or physically disabled cases, violent and/or emotionally disturbed cases, and the mentally retarded. Students will be familiarized with different strategies in clinical assessment, namely: assessment interview; cognitive assessment; personality assessment; perceptual, sensory, and sensorimotor assessment; behavioral assessment which includes naturalistic observation, self-monitoring and controlled/systematic observation; and clinical judgment which includes quantitative and subjective approaches. Opportunities for supervised administration and interpretation procedures and tests to actual cases will be provided and will be conducted in Psychology Laboratory. At the end of the course, the student is expected to have acquired the skill of establishing report with a client and preparing a case report. Theories of Personality (THEOPER) 3 units Prerequisite : Introduction to Psychology This course aims to provide the students with a basic understanding of man’s behavior through a detailed overview of personality theories. The course will include a critical examination of issues and assumptions of personality studies. Through this course, the students will be exposed to different research methodologies employed by different psychologists in formulating or validating personality theories. The course will consider the nature and dynamics of the Filipino personality. Abnormal Psychology (ABPSYCH) 3 units Prerequisite : Theories of Personality Prerequisite to : Clinical Psychology The course aims to provide the students with basic understanding on the nature, cause and possible interventions of psychological disorders such as neuroses, psychoses, personality disorders, childhood disorders, mental retardation and neurocognitive impairments. At the end of the course the student is expected to be familiar with the nomenclature and classifications of mental disorders. The students will be introduced to indigenous concepts of abnormality and abnormal behavior. Opportunities for exposure to actual cases will be provided through field trips and visitations of selected government and private mental health institutions. Clinical Psychology (PSYCLIN) 3 units Prerequisite : Abnormal Psychology The course aims to familiarize the students with concepts, theories and research findings and methodologies that form the basis for clinical assessment and intervention in Clinical Psychology. The students will be introduced to clinical process and practice and to the various emerging subspecialties in Clinical Psychology, namely: Community Psychology, Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine, Neuropsychology, Forensic Psychology, Pediatric and Clinical Child Psychology, and Geriatric and Clinical Adult and Aging Psychology. Students will be trained on the basic principles and skills in clinical case interview and are expected to be able to write a clinical case history. Opportunities for supervised clinical assessment and intervention of actual common cases will be provided as part of the course. Social Psychology (SOCIPSY) 3 units Prerequisite : Introduction to Psychology This course provides the students with an understanding of their social behavior to enable them to enrich their relationship with other people and to contribute to the development of groups and society. An overview of the theories and concepts on how people think about, influence, and relate to each other is presented. Sikolohiyang Pilipino (FILIPSY) 3 units Prerequisite : Social Psychology This course will be conducted in Filipino and will include the study of concepts and methods in the field of culture and psychology that will give meaning to the psychological reality based on the language and world view of the Filipino. The students will be introduced to issues in Sikolohiyang Pilipino as a discipline and as a movement, to indigenous concepts in Sikolohiyang Pilipino, and will be trained on the conduct of indigenous research methods. Part of the coursework will be done on the field where the students will be immersed in a typical Filipino community and utilize indigenous research methods in the investigation of psychological realities related to traditional medicine, clinical ethnopsychology and indigenous methods and concepts of health and illness. Hence, the course would be offered only during the summer session. Directed Readings and Research in Psychology (DIRPSY1/ DIRPSY2) 2 units per term for a total of 4 units Prerequisite : All major courses The course will involve reading of classical, original and important works in selected areas in psychology and/or actual participation in research supervised by a faculty member or a team of faculty members. At the start of each trimester, a list of faculty members with corresponding research areas and/or topics of interest will be posted. Instruction is individualized and completion will be based on the students’ pace. The student will be allowed to enroll as early as his/her fourth term of majoring and as many times as he/she needs with a minimum of 4. 0 total units. Satisfactory completion of the course will be assessed by either a revalida and annotated review of literature (for readings) or oral defense and research output (for research). Electives for BS Psychology (PSYELEC) 3 units Prerequisite : All major courses The BS Psychology major of at least a senior standing or in the summer session prior to the last year of majoring should take at least one of the following Psychology Elective courses: Community Mental Health (COMHEAL) 3 units Prerequisite : Sikolohiyang Filipino, Clinical Psychology Community psychology is an approach to mental health that emphasizes the role of environmental forces in creating and alleviating problems. This course aims to introduce the students to the community mental health perspectives, which are cultural relativity, diversity and ecology. The students will be trained experientially to pay attention to the fit between environments and persons which may or may not be good, to focus on action directed toward the competencies of persons and environments rather than their deficits, and to veer away from single social norms or values but instead look at the promotion of diversity. The students will exposed to community diagnosis and treatment models rather than individual illness and treatment models. In terms of mental health, approach is on principles of prevention rather than curative. Part of the coursework will be conducted in a community for experiential learning. Hence, the course will only be offered during the summer term. Health Psychology (HEALPSY) 3 units Prerequisite : Biological Psychology, Clinical Psychology The course will familiarize students to the various contributions of the field of Psychology to the enhancement of health, the prevention and treatment of illness, the identification of health risk factors, the improvement of the health care system, and the shaping of public opinion with regard to health. Class discussion and student activities will focus on the application of psychological principles to such physical health areas as lowering hypertension, controlling serum cholesterol levels, managing stress, alleviating pain, stopping smoking, moderating other appetitive behaviors, and encouraging regular exercise; identifying the psychological correlates of health, diagnosing and treating certain chronic diseases; and modifying the behavioral factors involved in physical and psychological rehabilitation. Students will be introduced to research methods used in Health Psychology such as Epidemiology. Discussions will be focus on the psychological factors of health problems in the Philippines such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, HIV/AIDS, aging, substance abuse, and patient adherence to medical advice. A close look on indigenous health concepts, beliefs and practices will likewise be included. Environmental Psychology (ENVIPSY) 3 units Prerequisite : Theories of Personality, Sensation and Perception Environmental Psychology deals with the study psychological aspects of the relationship of man and his environment. The course will familiarize the students with the historical roots, important theories and concepts, and research methodologies in Environmental Psychology. Discussions will include the Filipino concept of environment such as perception of space, privacy and crowding, and health and stress-inducing milieus. Application of psychological principles in the study and development of different environment sectors in the Philippines such as the house, leisure/relaxation pots, learning environment, work environment, mental health settings and the squatters area will be discussed. The course will likewise introduce the students to the different environmental issues facing the country such as air and noise pollution, conservation of nature, effects of modernization such as zoning and greening, and tourism interventions that are income generating but could cause destruction of the traditional ways of life. Practicum in Psychology (PRCPSY1) 3 units Prerequisite : All major courses This course allows students who are about to graduate from the BS Psychology program an opportunity to become part of an environment/ situation/ team where the psychological principles are at work and the knowledge and skills learned through the program could be utilized, refined and maybe further enhanced. Fulfillment of the course requires a minimum of 150 hours of satisfactory work in any one or a combination of the following areas: Multi-disciplinary Health Team Clinical Psychology Practice Action Projects Related to Psychology Human Resource Development Groups Rehabilitation Center

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Jane Eyre Chapter 26 Essay Essay Example

Jane Eyre: Chapter 26 Essay Paper In this essay, I will be focusing on Chapter 26 to discuss the elements Bronte uses such as building up tension throughout the wedding until the discovery of Bertha. Secondly, I will be analysing the context of the novel, discussing the writing techniques Bronte uses to create an appealing novel for a 19th century audience. From the beginning of the novel, we are invited to share Janes thoughts and feeling through the use of 1st person narrative. This allows us to share her fears and excitement. The gothic elements in the novel such as the demonic laugh create a sense of dread. This is heightened by the pathetic fallacy of the great horse-chestnut at the bottom of the orchard had been struck by lightning in the night, and half of it split away that symbolizes the happy union of Jane and Rochester and that is split in two. Therefore at the beginning of chapter 26 we are already afraid that something is going to ruin the marriage. At the start of chapter 26, Bronte presents Janes and Mr. Rochesters wedding as unconventional. She does this initially by creating the sense of speed that Rochester imposes on Jane. The writer uses words such as hurried tarry and hastened which creates suspicion as to the cause. We will write a custom essay sample on Jane Eyre: Chapter 26 Essay specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Jane Eyre: Chapter 26 Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Jane Eyre: Chapter 26 Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer This is in contrast to the expectations of a conventional wedding where the couples take time planning their big day. Then, Bronte continues to develop that apprehension by describing Jane, the heroine and narrator of the novel. She describes Janes reflection while wearing her wedding dress as the image of a stranger allowing Bronte to indicate that the marriage and her role in it are somehow unnatural and wrong. This is emphasised also by the repetition that invites contrast with a normal wedding there were no groomsmen, bridesmaids, no relatives to wait for or marshal: none but Mr. Rochester and I Bronte continues to challenge the stereotype of a conventional wedding by describing the setting outside the church. In the quote a ruddy morning sky she uses Pathetic Fallacy to describe Janes deep emotional and spiritual connotations of the colour red creates not only a scene of a beautiful sunrise but also of passion and danger. Also, Bronte adds a rook wheeling around the steeple to emphasise that the wedding wont go as planned because rooks are considered as bad omens. As readers, we notice Brontes frequent use of bad omens to give the impression of terrible events that will happen as the novel progresses and these all add to the gothic feel of the novel. As the ceremony begins Bronte has deliberately not given the rest of the vows and allows the clergyman to take a step further forward before he went on, which indicates the importance of the next event. He continues to say that if either of you know any impediment Given the haste and unnatural quality of the events the reader is already tense when a distinct and voice said- I declare the existence of an impediment provides the clear answer to the readers speculations making this a successful climax to the tension built during the long pause where after that sentence it was never broken by a reply; not, even in a hundred years. Subsequently, Rochester is presented as weak against Gods law. In the quote, Mr. Rochester moved slightly as if an earthquake had rolled under his feet the use of metaphor to express Rochester reaction to the earthquake as he moved slightly shows Rochesters attempt at control. However, his hopes and plans have been destroyed by those few words symbolized in the presence of an earthquake. To call attention to his power, Rochester uses the imperative Proceed to continue the failed wedding hoping the clergyman would follow his order. After the ceremony is suspended, Bronte turns Rochester from a bridegroom into a colourless rock. She describes his eye using imagery of fire as both spark and flint to illustrate Rochesters emotions. In contrast to Rochesters inner emotions, Bronte uses a simile to compare Rochester externally as a quarried marble. He is emotionless, strong and cold from the outside, but inside his world is of fire which symbolizes his passion and rage as a threat. This is further emphasized as Bronte uses the repetition of the word without and the alliterative in the quote without speaking, without smiling, without seeming heightens Rochesters lack of any signs of warmth towards Jane at a time when she needs comforting making this line effective. However, Rochesters body language contrasts with his emotions indicated by his hot and strong grasp. This suggests the heat of the fire has penetrated through the deep icy walls of his rock-like body and further suggests his difficulty in keeping in control. But, the verb riveted stresses his determination to keep his possession of Jane when he is likely to lose her. But, he also denies almost her rights as an individual treating her as an object. Jane does not utter a word throughout the short ceremony as she is calm and collected and in no danger of swooning. which further emphasise Janes courage in adversity contrasting with the stereotypes of the fragile Victorian Lady. Bronte emphasises Janes strength again when the wedding party moves to the attic where we meet Bertha, the first Mrs Rochester or the madwoman in the attic is an intriguing subject. She is an elusive figure who never speaks and is only seen twice throughout the novel; yet she dominates it. Her presence is felt effectively from the moment Jane enters Thornfield: It was a curious laugh; distinct, formal, mirthless. Her actions convey her violent behaviour such as attacking Rochester twice and her brother. She also tears Janes wedding veil the night and her final act is burning down Thornfield Hall. Berthas actions do seem to convey that she is aware of what is going on at Thornfield, which makes us wonder what kind of insanity she is suffering from. There is an implicit jealousy of Jane in her actions, or at least her position as a recipient of Rochesters love. She manifests great anger towards her husband because he has kept her shut away for so long. The description of Bertha where we witness her for the first time is from Janes point of view and seen terrified of her describing her as a strange wild animal with grizzled hair, wild as mane and she stands on all fours suggesting animal-like behaviour that provokes to the reader to see Bertha as a threat and an obstacle to Janes and Rochesters happiness rather than a real woman. While we may feel some pity for Bertha, the reader feels horror that Rochester is not allowed to find any happiness with a loving woman. Bronte uses images of madness to describe Bertha, such as a figure ran backwards and forwards to give the audience the impression of Rochesters bitterness and resentment of Bertha. Bertha Mason is on first impression opposite of both Jane and the stereotypes of a Victorian woman. Although there are differences, when looking deeper Jane has some similarities with Bertha concerning both their past. Both were locked up previously for being awkward or insane and both were treated as outcasts by society for not conforming. However, there are some aspects of racial prejudice towards Bertha even when Rochester talks of how beautiful she was a young girl. Since she is from the West Indies which was once a British colony could imply that Britain feared and psychologically locked away the other cultures it encountered. Others could argue that Bertha symbolizes the trapped Victorian wife, who is expected never to work outside the house as women had inferior status to men. Furthermore, Berthas insanity could serve as warning for Janes future if she was to marry Rochester. At the end of Chapter 26, the reader sympathizes more intensely for Jane. She is saddened and confused about what actions should she take or angry for being rushed and dragged into a wedding where if she had taken time and thought it would have resulted in a happy ending. Bronte once more uses Pathetic Fallacy to show Janes cold and disheartened mood in the quotes, hayfield and cornfield lay a frozen shroud although its June. Here Bronte uses icy imagery which is in contrast to the fire imagery used to describe Rochesters emotions. The world around her has symbolically become icy, frozen and cold to sympathize with Janes dead hopes and therefore she returns to God for comfort. This makes the next part of the novel inevitable, and also explains the moral purposes of Bronte, and the need for Rochester to suffer. This novel is often interpreted as a political book because it explores the idea of woman [Jane] alone, in charge of her own life and decisions. Jane could easily be described as a feminist. She rejects the man she loves until such time as she can be his equal. She would rather be alone and independent than with Rochester on his terms. To conclude, I think that Jane Eyre is an interesting book that will appeal to readers both now and in the 19th century as some of the injustices are still occurring today. Bronte used many techniques in this book to build up tension throughout the ceremony. For example, she uses the method of Pathetic Fallacy as well as many symbols of bad omens to create suspense. She also uses aspects from the history of her time like class boundaries, equality very effectively to make the reader aware of the hardships of being a woman in a patriarchal society. Another way in which Bronte creates tension is by using the shifts in power between Jane and Rochester making this chapter an effective climax to the novel.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

How to Get Started With Content Curation for Your Blog

When it comes to running a blog, one of the biggest challenges is creating a large volume of content thats also high quality. Often, it seems you can either have many posts written quickly and poorly, or well-crafted posts that take days or weeks to write. However, content curation provides an alternative.Choosing to curate some or all of your blogs content can result in a large number of excellent posts very quickly. By focusing on high-quality sources and drawing material from existing articles, you can fill your blog while still producing work you can be proud to share on your site.In this post, well dive into what content curation is and how it can benefit your blog. Then well share a step-by-step guide on how to curate content for your own blog. Lets get started! not taking content from another blog and publishing it on your own – thats just plagiarism. Instead, curation is a process of collecting, organizing, and providing fresh insight into existing articles.Content cur ations most immediate benefit is its typically much faster than producing traditional blog posts, without sacrificing quality. However, by helping you tap into a backlink network, it can also help improve your blogs Search Engine Optimization (SEO) and visibility, increasing your traffic and possibly your revenue.How to curate content for your blog (in 5 steps)Though usually a fairly streamlined process, content curation still takes some careful planning if you want to do it right. Trying to cut corners could result in copyright disputes and a negative impact on your blogs SEO, so make sure all your bases are covered by sticking to the steps below.1. Select your sourcesA strong source for curated content needs to be reliable, recognizable, and relevant to your target audience. Choosing reliable sources influences your own credibility and your blogs quality. When considering a source, make sure their claims are factual and based on research.Youll also want your sources to produce qua lity content consistently. Avoid sources with lots of grammar or spelling mistakes, as well as those with poor web design. Sources posting new material on a regular basis are preferable since youll be able to count on them to deliver content.A source thats recognizable to your target audience is always useful too. Sourcing content from other blogs with small followings is unlikely to help you boost your traffic, unless youre both fortunate enough that a post goes viral. Name recognition goes a long way to establish credibility as well.Relevancy is needed for the success of just about any website, including your blog. If you pull articles about subjects your target readers arent interested in, youll have a hard time reeling them in and getting them to become loyal followers.One of the best ways to hit all three of these points is to source content from the top blogs, websites, and other publications in your niche. A quick Google search will likely point you in the right direction, bu t if youre already tapped into your niches online community, consider asking for recommendations or using sites you already follow.2. Excerpt and annotate your contentAs we mentioned earlier in this post, content curation is  not  taking content off one website and putting it on your own. Its crucial to add some of your own thoughts and comments to each curated post. This step is vital for a couple of reasons.For starters, copying others content and passing it off as your own is copyright infringement and illegal. Plus, plagiarism probably wont earn you any respect in the blogging community. It will almost definitely hurt your reputation, greatly decreasing the chances that youll be able to build a solid following.Youll also want to annotate your curated content for SEO purposes. Duplicate content will have a difficult time ranking on Search Engine Results Pages (SERPs) because it will have to compete with its copy. Differentiating your post gives it a better chance to rank high er.A common and successful strategy for dealing with this is to excerpt from and annotate your sources. This involves pulling the most important information from an article in the form of block quotes, and then providing your own thoughts, ideas, explanations, or reactions to them.The popular site Brain Pickings is a prime example of this method. Writer Maria Popova covers topics related to literature, art, philosophy, and science, often sharing long quotes from other articles or books and expounding upon them:Your posts dont necessarily have to be as in-depth and intellectual as Popovas. However, her site provides some good insight into curation best practices and how to structure your excerpts and annotations.3. Aggregate additional contentAnother technique for responsibly curating content is known as aggregation. This consists of compiling a list of articles or other resources you think your readers will be interested in and sharing it with them. Its a popular strategy among news aggregator sites such as theSkimm.Aggregated content can make up the majority of your blog posts if you want it to. However, its smart practice to write a summary for your own site highlighting key points then linking to the original article, for the same reasons mentioned in previous steps.Even so, aggregated articles can also make for a nice supplement to your main posts. You can provide your readers with a list of latest niche community news, popular resources for further research, or some of your own favorite reads.Regardless of which method you prefer, aggregation is an extremely easy way to generate content because you can automate it. Plugins such as our  Feedzy RSS Feeds can create lists of aggregated content and automatically add them to a post, page, or sidebar on your site: RSS Aggregator by Feedzy Powerful WP Autoblogging and News Aggregator Author(s): ThemeisleCurrent Version: 3.3.11Last Updated: October 10, 2019feedzy-rss-feeds.zip 94%Ratings 581,789Downloads WP 3.7+Requires Your feeds will update automatically, so they require minimal maintenance. Feedzy even uses Artificial Intelligence (AI) to rephrase and refresh aggregated posts to avoid duplicate content concerns.4. Cite your sourcesEven though you will have either excerpted and annotated, provided an original summary, or used AI to rephrase your curated content, its still necessary to cite your sources. In some way or form, youll need to acknowledge your posts original creators.For one, this practice is polite. Its always best to give credit where its due – after all, someone else worked hard to create the material that will now provide your blog with an ample volume of high-quality content. Readers and other bloggers will usually respect you more if you cite your sources.Additionally, citing sources can be useful for your blogs SEO. Some online writers will appreciate you giving their site backlinks and return the favor. Others may become readers and recommend your blog to their own following.These days, linking to the original source is the standard way to give credit to another content creator. However, theres nothing wrong with using good old-fashioned parenthetical citations or footnotes as well.5. Use content curation SEO best practicesSome of the previous steps have already covered important considerations for SEO when curating content. Specifically, weve mentioned the potential negative effects of using duplicate content on your site, and how to avoid doing so.However, there are also opportunities to improve your SEO using content curation. Specifically, theres a chance to build a well-rounded backlink profile that can bring in traffic from other sites as well as improving your organic search rankings.By citing your sources, you should start to build a network between your blog and other sites. Hopefully, theyll start linking back to you as well. Plus, because your site includes informative content on relevant topics bolstered by your own u nique insights, other blogs may link back to you as a resource.Its also key that the sites linking to yours are of high quality. Googles Penguin Algorithm assesses your sites backlink profile for quality as well as quantity. This means youll get a better signal boost from the reliable sources where you get your content than from small, low-quality sites.ConclusionWhen it comes to blogging, having a large number of first-rate posts is key. The traditional method of brainstorming and writing content sometimes makes this goal difficult to achieve. However, content curation can help speed up the process without dragging your blogs quality down.In this post, weve examined five steps that can help guide you to successfully curate content for your blog:Select your sources.Excerpt and annotate your content.Aggregate additional content.Cite your sources.Use content curation SEO best practices. Learn how to get started with content curation on your #blog or #website âÅ" Ã¯ ¸  Click To Twee t Do you have questions about how to use content curation? 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