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United States History Essays - Monopoly, Market Structure

US History Essays - Monopoly, Market Structure US History From 1790 to the 1870?s, state and national governments interceded in the Am...

Thursday, August 27, 2020

United States History Essays - Monopoly, Market Structure

US History Essays - Monopoly, Market Structure US History From 1790 to the 1870?s, state and national governments interceded in the American economy principally to help private monetary interests and advance financial development. Somewhere in the range of 1890 and 1929, in any case, government mediation was structured essentially to control and manage private monetary movement in the open intrigue. Evaluate the legitimacy of this announcement, talking about for every one of these periods at any rate TWO significant zones of open financial approach. The announcement is basically evident, in the hour of 1790 to 1870?s personal business was at its pinnacle, government and state did little to control or typically was supportive of enormous business. Free enterprise was the basic arrangement towards guidelines and professional interactions as a rule. Anyway structure 1890 and 1929 the perspectives changed, more individuals were worried about the prosperity or the individuals, worried about the regularly developing intensity of large organizations; government and state began to direct them in the very manners that the past timespan. I. 1790-1870 a. guideline 1. numerous organizations were allowed to do however they wanted I. Carnegie Steel ii. RR 2. restraining infrastructures were built up I. multimillion dollar businesses were framed a. Standard Oil b. Carnegie Steel ii. minimal done to manage these huge organizations a. not until Sherman Anti-trust Act was there an endeavor made to manage syndications 1. indeed, even that didn?t have teeth 3. with the restraining infrastructures costs can be fixed, nothing was done to stop this until the late 1800?s 4. free enterprise strategies were supported at that point b. business when all is said in done 1. led in the manner the top 1% saw fit I. Andrew Carnegie ii. John D. Rockefeller iii. J.P. Morgan 2. huge business flourished while the entrepreneurs were left to the kindness of the enormous folks 3. economy depended on the couple of individuals that had all the cash I. this brought about numerous poor, scarcely any rich ii. once more government/state didn?t do a thing till after the late 1800?s 4. strikes and associations illicit at that point II. 1890 - 1929 a. guideline 1. Acts start to go on the defensive I. Sherman Anti-Trust Act ii. Interstate Commerce Act 2. Restraining infrastructures began to be separated I. Trust Busters a. Teddy Roosevelt b. Woodrow Wilson ii. guideline of business increasingly exacting 3. Individuals begin to understand the shades of malice of a free enterprise economy I. nobody however huge business would benefit 4. old styles of thing are before long taken over by another reasoning I. all individuals are significant ii. economy which was fundamentally coordinated towards the couple of riches was currently being coordinated towards the larger part, not the minority b. business in General 1. associations lawful I. AFL 2. per capita salary rose from $450 to $567 3. indeed, even presidents see changed with the appointment of Roosevelt I. President was steward of the individuals ii. Hepburn Act a. controlled RR b. moved to free enterprise 4. Degenerate business strategies changed I. Unadulterated Food and Drug Act a. to control the corrupt strategies of the enormous organizations and to help the states of life. 5. notable individuals are increasingly worried about the neediness of the nation I. presidents a. Taft b. Wilson ii. some rich iii. scholars 6. strategies changed towards rich being exceedingly imperative to an increasingly cognizant moralistic perspective on the individuals being significant Taking everything into account I accept that the monetary arrangements during 1790 to 1870 were in certainty set up to help private interests of the couple of well off in the U.S. in light of the ever common developing riches in people, for example, Rockefeller and Carnegie. Imposing business models and protections developed without restriction in this timeframe. Things key to the people groups needs were disregarded, for example, associations and value guidelines Whereas in the 1890 to 1929 strategies and perspectives were moved to a progressively focal spotlight on the open interests and syndications were beginning to be toppled by trust busters and laws and guidelines set against them, for example, the Sherman Anti-trust act and the Interstate Commerce Act which were first made successful with president Roosevelt.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Report About Mechanical Waves free essay sample

Mechanical Waves Background Mechanical waves will be waves which require a mode for engendering since vitality is moved by means of the movement of the medium. A case of a mechanical wave is sound. Transverse waves will be waves which vibrate opposite to their course of engendering. Surface water waves can be named a transverse wave. Every electromagnetic wave are likewise instances of transverse waves. A longitudinal wave is a wave wherein its particles vibrate corresponding to their heading of engendering. Sound waves, seismic tremor waves and torrent waves are instances of longitudinal waves. A few terms to be considered are: Wavelength: the separation between two progressive indistinguishable focuses Frequency: number of waves that go through a fixed point in a subsequent Amplitude: most extreme removal that particles can move to and from their harmony position Crest: Highest purposes of a wave Trough: Lowest purposes of a wave Aim: To watch the transmission of waves in a smooth, rope and water surfaces Hypothesis: The more vitality applied to a particular article, the more drawn out the wave will last Results/Observations: Waves in a smooth: * The more power applied to the lurk brought about more particles having the option to engender through the wave * The closer the smooth are to one another, the quicker the wave will travel Waves in a rope: * As more vitality is applied onto the rope, the wave will last more and not stop. We will compose a custom article test on Report About Mechanical Waves or then again any comparative subject explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page Subsequently, the plentifulness estimated is a lot bigger when contrasted and a little vitality. Water surface waves * The more power applied to the tap onto the wave, the wave voyaged quicker and had a more extended span Discussion: As observed all through the three examinations, the more vitality that is applied onto the article, the outcome is a lot bigger plentifulness. Thus, the wave will last more. With the expansion in vitality applied, the other outcome will likewise be in a higher recurrence. End: From these three comparable investigations, we have discovered that as more vitality is applied to the wave (recurrence builds), the frequency will diminish and the other way around. This implies recurrence and frequency are in a roundabout way relative to one another. Consequently, demonstrating the speculation right.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Case Study Writing Services in Canada

Case Study Writing Services in CanadaCase studies are a great way to help your customers. They can be used as a tool to learn about the people who use your product or service. It is also a great way to get a direct insight into what the consumer is thinking when they use your product or service. There are many benefits that you can gain by using case studies.One of the main benefits of this type of research is that it allows you to get an insight into the customer's thought process. By taking a closer look at the problems that the customer is having with your product or service, you can then better understand how to make changes that will solve those problems. The goal is to get past the technical aspects of the problem and to identify the actual problem that the customer is having. By understanding the root cause of the problem, you can do something about it.By taking a closer look at the potential problem that your customer is facing, you can take the basic steps to solve it. The f irst step that you will want to take is to write down what is the problem that the customer is facing. Next, you will want to find out how long the problem has been going on. By knowing this information, you can make sure that you are not going to create a situation where you have to keep coming back for more help.The next step to take is to find out how long the customer has been using your product or service. Again, you should take a close look at the problem to determine the root cause of the problem. Once you have determined the root cause of the problem, you will be able to determine the solution that you need to use to fix the problem. The solution to the problem will have to be specific to the problem. It is important that you include details so that the reader knows exactly what to expect when the solution to the problem is completed.Now that you have the problem, the root cause, and the solution, you will want to talk to the customer to determine how they feel about your pr oduct or service. You should always try to get an honest opinion from the customer. If the customer is not happy with the product or service, you may want to consider changing what you are doing. It is not always the best idea to listen to the customer's feelings about your product.Remember that you will want to be sensitive to the feelings of the customer when you are conducting the research. It is important that you give the customer the same respect that you would give to yourself. By listening to the customer, you will be able to provide them with the best possible service that you can provide. The biggest benefit to using case studies is that you will be able to show your true colors.If you do not take time to listen to the customer, you will eventually run into a situation where you will have to start paying them because they are unsatisfied with your product or service. Using case studies is one of the best ways to show your true colors. You will be able to show that you are open and willing to listen to the customer and to give them the tools that they need to make their experience on your product or service the best it can be.Once you are able to show your true colors to the customer, it will make it much easier for them to trust you and for you to give them the best possible product or service that you can. You will know exactly what to say, what to do, and how to show them that you care about them and want to make sure that they have a wonderful experience on your product or service. If you want to learn more about case studies, there are many companies that offer these types of services.

Monday, May 25, 2020

Police Influence On Society The United States - 943 Words

Police Influence on Society The United States is one of the most civilized and structured countries in the World. Since the early settlers came to the new country and established settlements there has been a need for law enforcement. As most of the settlers immigrated from English colonies it is no surprise that law enforcement in the new world was modeled from English culture however, no matter if its United States or England government is the foundation of law enforcement. As such, policing in this country was created and controlled by the ruling classes. In this paper the relationship between law enforcement and ethnic groups will be explored. [It wasn’t until the 1800s that there were police agencies that even faintly resembled the agencies that we have today. They were modeled after Sir Robert Peel’s London Metropolitan Police. As in England, the population of Colonial America began to grow and immigrant groups began to arrive from various countries (Archbold, 2 012). Some of the earliest immigrant groups were from Italy, Germany, Ireland, and some of the Scandinavian countries (Archbold, 2012). As the population increased so did social disorder, new racial and ethnic groups were often seen as the source of the unrest (Archbold, 2012). In the southern states Slave Patrols were formed to manage and maintain control over slave populations (Archbold, 2012). These patrols were known to be brutal and cruel in their methods of control, they continued their work untilShow MoreRelatedPolice Influence on Society744 Words   |  3 PagesPolice Influence on Society Stephanie Jennings CJA/344 February 11, 2013 Stephen Humphries Police Influence on Society There are different factors when it comes to the police influence on society. The factors can be both negative and positive on society. The police are in the community to protect and serve. The main purpose of law enforcement is to maintain order and to investigate criminal activity in the United States. The history of American policing was learned from Great BritainRead MoreCultural Considerations1618 Words   |  7 Pagesgoing to discuss different culture concerns, and what the influences are in today’s society within the criminal justice system. Also, this paper will talk about how to attend to different culture concerns, security administration, and how influences affect the criminal justice system. Some of the other points that are going to be touched up on are contemporary methods that are used in societies of assorted cultures, how these different influences and considerations related to and affect nondiscriminationRead MoreBrave New World By Aldous Huxley1161 Words   |  5 Pagesthin line between a contemporary society and the society depicted in the novel Brave New World by Aldous Huxley. One can clearly differentiate the utopian/dystopian portrayals in Brave New World to society today. The sustainability of maintaining mass control on society plays a major part in this novel as well as the concept of love and sex. In the world today there are trying to control society and how we view sex and love while maintaining our methods to influence that notion. The methods that theRead MoreThe Criminal Justice System Is The Law Of The Land1380 Words   |  6 Pageslaw is the law of the land and by that it provides a stable community of rules that everyone must follow with efficiency while providing public safety. With that comes the enforcement of the law, the most common being police. In essence majority of the united states looks at the police in a positive light as they are providing support to the community, controlling crime and making the areas we live at safer on a daily basis. Finally you have the correctional programs which provide imprisonment or probationRead MorePolice Reform : 1960s And Today s Society1732 Words   |  7 PagesAlyssa Compton Professor Grace Stewart CRJ 217 20 March 2016 Police Reform: 1960s and Today’s Society In the 1960s, there were a lot of riots and protests due to the civil rights movement to enrich individual’s rights and constitutional protections. Many of the police were restricted and were â€Å"handcuffed† and could not do much in order for people to have their rights. The bond between the police and minorities were quickly detached, causing racial issues and total chaos. Lyndon B. Johnson establishedRead MoreWar on Terror1421 Words   |  6 Pagesdeeply how and why terror has an influence in our society by basing on 3 perspectives: terror and international environment, terror and state, and terror with individual. Terror was first used From the French revolution to the end of World War II as a tool to clean the monarchy in a society by the Jacobins, terrorist groups of French revolution. Then terror was developed when the Soviets threatened and exploited people. Opponents were starved to death. The state controlled what a person ate,Read MorePolice Influence on Society Essay924 Words   |  4 PagesRunning Head: POLICE INFLUENCE ON SOCIETY Police Influence on Society CJA/344 Historically, this nation of the United States has proven many times over its dominance over those who are different to those in power. The United States has proven time and again that it can and will discriminate against others it considers less than equal. This is proven and demonstrated to all U. S citizens and those who are not, in our history books throughout school. Every year affording student’s new informationRead MoreCultural Paper1655 Words   |  7 Pagesconcerns and influences in today’s society along with the mixed culture as it directly relates to the effect it has on the criminal justice system. The author will address how does the concerns of the culture effect justice and security administration and practices, contemporary methods used in societies with mixed cultures, how do these influences relate and affect nondiscrimination practices, and if the famous criminal justice historian Sir Robert Peels nine principles to organize a police departmentRead MoreComparing China And The United States1401 Words   |  6 Pagesthe comparison of the justice system in China and the United States. Exploring the ideas and views, which include the confidence in police, informal and formal crime control, and views on capital punishment. China and the United States can be considered comparable in different interpretations, views, and ideas. These cultures are both very popular in the current world. China is a one party system controlled by communists where as the United States is a multiparty, grounded on a extremely democraticRead MorePolice Brutality Of African Americans1405 Words   |  6 PagesIn recent years police brutality towards African Americans has increased. This violence has resulted in riots across the United States. The August 2014 death of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri many Americans, some who are former Civil Rights activists, have spoken out against police brutality. Black Lives Matter states that the movement’s g oal is to bring justice to the present unjust police killings of African Americans. Looking at prior cases of brutality and its connection to racial profiling

Friday, May 15, 2020

Sex Trafficking The Dominant Discourse Around Human...

The audience for this paper is an educated public and specifically those who influence or make policy regarding trafficking, most specifically in Colorado. The dominant discourse around human trafficking centers on sex trafficking, and I hope to encourage a more holistic view. While the Colorado legislature should be applauded for greatly improving its human trafficking laws with HB 14-1273, local victims of child sex trafficking would probably take little comfort in knowing the new bill has special provisions limiting the legal defenses their traffickers can mount while offering no such protection to labor-trafficked children. The societal focus on sex trafficking, often at the expense of labor trafficking is ideological, not logical, and certainly not based on any reliable data. According to a study of a sample of major American, British, and Canadian newspapers from 2000-2005, sex-trafficking-focused articles represented more than half of the sample and more than double the number about labor trafficking (54% vs. 20%). Moreover, in the United States, the percentage of sex trafficking articles was even higher at 58%. More than just a numerical imbalance, this can be problematic as it â€Å"suggests that rather than influencing the nature of the debate, the news media mostly echo the narratives presented by the major participants in the policy process and, thus, help support the dominant views.† Academia is also not immune to this imbalance. Another study conductedShow MoreRelatedHuman Trafficking And Its Effects On Society2954 Words   |  12 Pagesmodern-day trafficking. Human trafficking is a very problematic issue in our society today and more victims are being taken advantage of whether it’s through slavery, sexual exploitation, organ trade, or even forced labour. In most cases, the victims of trafficking is often known to be transferred from one country to another and forced to work for a benefit of the crime. In other words, it’s very common and known for the criminals to drug the victims or kidnap and force them to work as sex slaves. InRead MoreThe Sex Industry And Immigration2522 Words   |  11 Pages20, 2014 Human Trafficking I will examine the Sex Industry and Immigration. My main focus will be the economic growth of Human Trafficking and the exploitation of individuals who are victims due to the Sex Industry from a global perspective. According to the literature I have reviewed human trafficking crimes against humanity. The objective of human trafficking can involve acts of harboring, transporting, recruiting or receiving a person through the use of force against their will. Human traffickingRead MoreFeminism : A New Form Of Rage From Modern Women s Right Activists1105 Words   |  5 Pageseradicate every single case of language abuse. However, at least, they are making an impact on the world in which is already filled with resentfully remarks towards promiscuous women as slovenly â€Å"sluts.† I have to concede that the two opposing discourses create a deadlock. Neither can prove reclamation of the word â€Å"slut† is universally harmful or beneficial; neither can give a satisfactory definition of what is the success of reclamation. However, individual liberty can only be appreciated as longRead MoreThe Abstract Principles Of Sexuality And Race2208 Words   |  9 Pagesan page about their gender-friendly campus that answers any common questions one might have about such issues. â€Å"No one knows what causes sexual orientation.† Many lesbian, gay and bisexual people know that they are attracted to members of their own sex at an early age, sometimes as young as 6 or 7 years old. Others learn much later in life, in their 30’s, 40’s or later still. Some research indicates that sexual orientation is determined between birth and age 3, but no one is sure what causes particularRead MoreAnthropological Challenges Raised by New Reproductive Technologi es2612 Words   |  11 Pagesmotherhood and sex predetermination. These are the mostly common used, giving some hope and a possibility to infertile patients to have children. These procedures are somewhat questioned in a way or another. Such questions involve around practical and ethical problems, as experimenting on human embryos could be dangerous and illegal in such ways as the embryos could be violated in a way. Cris Shore questions also if these reproductive technologies could lead to genetic engineering and if the human lifeRead MoreAnthropological Challenges Raised by New Reproductive Technologies2623 Words   |  11 Pagesmotherhood and sex predetermination. These are the mostly common used, giving some hope and a possibility to infertile patients to have children. These procedures are somewhat questioned in a way or another. Such questions involve around practical and ethical problems, as experimenting on human embryos could be dangerous and illegal in such ways as the embryos could be violated in a way. Cris Shore questions also if these reproductive technologies could lead to genetic engineering and if the human lifeRead MoreSociological View on Deviance and Drug Use Essay8777 Words   |  36 PagesIntroduction What can a sociologist tell us about deviance, and drug use that we do not already know? If there is anything distinctive about the sociologist view, it is their emphasis on social context. One of the central ideas of all human experience is meaning. Meaning is something imposed and socially made-up, and has two features: it is both external and internal. Meaning is assigned externally to objects and behavior by social cooperation. But it is also assigned by the individualRead MoreMens Rea The Writing Style and Feminism of Lakambini Sitoy7010 Words   |  29 Pagesand guidance every single day. ABSTRACT This paper assumes that the writing style of Lakambini Sitoy in the short story Mens Rea, effectively conveys the author’s views on feminism. Verbal data supporting this argument are analyzed using discourse analysis, based on the literary critical theories of expressivism, formalism, affectivism, and feminism. The findings reveal that: although in conflict with one another, the main characters of the story both show empathy to women’s issues; the symbolismsRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 PagesCentury †¢ Jose C. Moya and Adam McKeown 9 †¢ 2 Twentieth-Century Urbanization: In Search of an Urban Paradigm for an Urban World †¢ Howard Spodek 53 3 Women in the Twentieth-Century World Bonnie G. Smith 83 4 The Gendering of Human Rights in the International Systems of Law in the Twentieth Century †¢ Jean H. Quataert 116 5 The Impact of the Two World Wars in a Century of Violence †¢ John H. Morrow Jr. 161 6 Locating the United States in Twentieth-Century World History Read MoreRacism and Ethnic Discrimination44667 Words   |  179 PagesIndigenous Peoples’ Autonomy and Development Racism and Ethnic Discrimination in Nicaragua November 2006 Contents 1. 2. Introduction Structure of the study 2.1 Scope and methodology 4 7 7 3. Racism and individual and collective human rights 3.1 A note on cultural and ethnic identity 9 11 4. Racism: colonial inheritance 4.1 Nicaragua: multiethnic and pluricultural state 4.2 The historic roots of differences, discrimination, and racism 4.2.1 Spanish Conquest and its

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Article Review On Online Casino Gaming - 2087 Words

Article 5 – Beginners Guide to Available Mobile Casinos Online casino gaming has revolutionised the way players spin the slots and play the cards, but there is now an innovation that is looking to raise the bar even further. Mobile casinos have changed the way people think about gambling; of that there is no doubt. However, for all the innovation that developers such as Playtech, Microgaming, and IGT present, questions still remain with regards to where to play. Thankfully, our skilled team of mobile casino experts have trawled the online casino portals of the world and located what we think are the 9 very best mobile casinos today. Jackpot Paradise – Going on popularity, Jackpot Paradise is right up there with the very best mobile†¦show more content†¦Want to cash-in before you even put a penny down? Then give Lucky Nugget a try. Vegas Paradise – Its name says it all, as you are unlikely to find any other mobile casino that can truly rival the â€Å"Las Vegas experience†. What most players like and found interesting about Vegas Paradise is how professional the casino comes across in all of its operations. Jackpot City – When it comes to player rewards, Jackpot City almost stands in a class all unto itself. The loyalty club scheme hands out bonuses regularly, with some of which being truly big in size. Playing at Jackpot City gives members the chance to truly having something for nothing. Royal Vegas – Rolling out what many feel is the red carpet treatment, you will truly feel like a king or queen when you play at Royal Vegas. Featuring various triple-A games and a free bonus get started with, players can’t go wrong when they sign up here. Platinum Play – Easy to recommend due to numbers alone, Platinum Play comes up trumps when it comes to game selection. Offering a simply huge number to choose from, Platinum Play represents the Microgaming back catalogue better than any other mobile casino. Bet365 – Considered a leading name in the world of online casino gaming and notably no slouch when it comes to the realm of mobile casino gaming either. Offered in both browser and app form, Bet365 offer a great all-round mobile casino experience. William Hill – Another leading online casino name that has branched out into

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Investigating the changing effects of temperature on the activity of enzymes free essay sample

Renin is an enzyme that catalyses the coagulation of milk. It is found in the stomach of many animals and is used in making cheeses and junkets. It is found in the gastric juices or gastric mucosa of many mammals, including humans. In the human stomach, particularly those of infants, rennin works to curdle milk so that pepsin, another stomach enzyme, can further breakdown the proteins into absorbable amino acids called polypeptides. The aim of this experiment is to investigate the effect of changing temperature on the activity of enzymes. After experimentation the optimum temperature for enzyme activity will be established and the effects of varing temperature will be identified. Several experiments have already been conducted testing similar hypothesis and aims. All of these experiments also had very similar results. They found that approximately 37Â °C was the optimal temperature for rennin; it was at this temperature that the milk solidified quickest. Below that the reaction would occur far more slowly, sometime taking hours to complete, sometimes not reacting at all. Above 37Â °C, at approximately 45Â °C, the enzyme would become denatured and the reaction would never occur, even after the temperature was lowered back down to 37Â °C. 1 Aim: To investigate the reaction rate of the enzyme rennin at various temperatures Hypothesis: It is predicted that a rise in temperature (to approximately 40Â °C) will increase enzyme activity. Wth further increase of temperature the protein enzymes will denature, lose their shape and therefore decrease in activity. Risk assessment: Risk Precaution Burns from the hot water bath or hot plate Ensure that all hot baths are set up in a visible area that is surrounded by minimal movement. If burns occur run affected area under cold water for 5-10 minutes depending on severity. Major burns should seek medical assistance Glass breakage can cause cuts/wounds Use test tube rack to steady test tubes. If glass breakage occurs immediately alert teacher, sweep up broken glass using a broom or dust pan and dispose of it in the appropriate bin Apparatus: Equipment Rationale 1 hot plate Heats water in hot bath for raising temperatures of milk and rennin above 30Â °C 1 hot bath holds water which is heated by hot plate 1 ice bath (500mL beaker + 6-7 ice cubes) Cools milk and rennin for testing temperatures below 30Â °C 3 regular test tubes Holds the 20mLs of milk required for each trial 3 micro test tubes Holds the small amount of rennin required 1 test tube rack Holds regular sized test tubes in place so handling does not influence reaction 20mL of milk Acts as substrate 2mL of rennin solution Acts as enzyme for milk 1 large pipette Gives precise measurment of milk 1 syringe Gives precise measurement of rennin 2 thermometers Measures temperature of milk and rennin when they are heated or cooled 1 timer Measures time taken for milk to set Method: Constant Variables Factor Importance Method of control Volume of milk The amount of milk determines the amount of substrate the enzyme has to work on which therefore effects the reaction rate. Keeping a constant amount of milk for each trial. Use Pipette Volume of rennin The amount of enzymes determines the amount of chemical reactions possible to occur. Keeping a constant amount of enzymes for each trial- 1ml per every 10ml of substrate. Use a syringe Rennin and milk brought to the same testing temperature Temperatures must be constant for both substances to ensure accuracy when they are mixed. Place each substance in a hot or cold water bath with thermometers in their test tubes. Remove from water bath when the same temperature has been reached Same time recorder Timing must be accurate. With the same person reaction rate to press go and stop would be similar for each trial. Have the same time recorder for every trial possible Same setting standard A setting standard must be determined to make timing of reaction rate accurate. Make a class decision on what is classified as set Standerdized thermometers To ensure accurate temperature readings Ensure all thermometers are standardized before experimentation Type of milk- from the same container Different types of milk may influence enzyme activity Use the same milk for each trial Type of junket- from the same container Different types of rennin may influence enzyme activity Use the same rennin for each trial Whether the solutions should be stirred or not A stirred or shaken solution may speed up reaction rate because more enzyme collisions would occur and faster Make a class decision on whether to shake/stir mixture or keep it still 1. Measure 20mls of milk using the pippette and release it into a regular test tube 2. Measure 2mls of rennin using the syringe and release it into a micro test tube 3. Place thermometers in both test tubes ensuring that the rennin does not overflow 4. Fill a 500ml beaker with 250ml of water and 6-7 ice cubes 5. Place both test tubes in the ice bath 6. Watch both thermometers until they reach 0Â °C 7. Pour the rennin solution into the test tube of milk. Begin timing as soon as all the rennin is poured into the milk 8. Shake the test tube slighlty to mix the rennin and milk together 9. Stop the timer once precipitate has formed or the milk has completely solidified 10. Repeat steps 1-9 using various other temperatures Note: use a hot plate and hot water bath when testing temperatures above 30Â °C Results: Temperature (? C) Average time taken for milk to set (min) 0 No reaction – did not set 10 5min + 20 4:42 30 4:37 40 1. 29 50 1. 48 60 5min + 70 No reaction – did not set 80 No reaction – did not set Discussion: When temperatures were either very low (0-20? C) or very high (70-80? C) enzyme activity did not occur or was minimal. This is because cooler temperatures decrease the amount of kinetic energy within the enzyme molecules. If there is not a substantial amount of kinetic energy, enzyme molecules are unable to collide with their substrate which therefore prevents reaction from occurring. Because enzymes are proteins when temperatures were too high the enzymes denatured, lost their structure and shape, making their active sites no longer complementary to their substrate/s. 2At temperatures around 40-50 ? C enzyme activity rapidly increased and the milk set under two minutes. This temperature range is therefore the optimum temperature for enzyme activity because enzymes obtain substantial amounts of kinetic energy and do not become denatured. 3 Accuracy was not constant throughout the experiment as small amounts of rennin were lost everytime a thermometer was placed in the micro test tube. Some milk was also lost when the rennin was added to it and the test tube was shaken. This may have affected the reaction rate of the enzymes. It was very difficult to calculate the exact temperature at which the enzyme and substrate were mixed because their temperatures dropped or rose rapidly when they were removed from the hot or cold baths. This further affected the accuracy of the experiment as temperatures tested were not exact. Repeated trials of the same temperature all had similar results which made the averages precise. There were no outliers so averages were not too high or too low. If an outlier occurred during experimentation because of known reasons the trial was tested again. Each temperature was tested three times making the experiment reasonably reliable however different groups tested each temperature which may have affected the reaction times recorded because of different perceptions about setting points and the speed of the persons timing. The limitations of this experiment were therefore caused by human error To prevent errors during experimentation more caution should have been taken when: mixing and shaking substances, recording the reaction rate, interpretation of setting time and the handling of test tubes. When shaking and handling the test tubes a stopper should have been used to prevent loss of mixture and exposure of heat from the person’s hands. Timing should have been conducted by the same person for every trial however this would have taken far too long. Interpretation of setting time should have been clearly explained or demonstrated before conducting the experiment. The results of this experiment correlated closely to research undertaken about the effects of changing temperature on enzymes. This therefore made the practical more valid and reliable. Most constant variables were followed and monitored precisely which further added to the fairness of experimentation. A few constant variables that may have been affected by human error were the temperatures at which the substances were brought to, the volume of rennin and the perceptions of the milks setting point, although the same instructions were given to all students. Conclusion: Enzyme activity therfore increases as temperatures increase to their optimum temperature (37-45Â °C). Once temperatures exceed the optimum temperature the enzymes denature (lose their shape) and become inactive.